Collections

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle

Identification
Original name(s)
    Institution Address


     
    France

    Type of organisation

    Institution Address


     
    France

    Director Representative


    Contact


    General Description

    Research Fields

    • Adaptations of living organisms
    • Man and the Environment
    • Origines and Evolution
    • Aquatic biogeography

    Research Initiative

    Contact

    Manager : Julien Blanc

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
    Total0

    Features

    Collection Description

    "The MNHN's cultural anthropology collections focus on the interrelationship between human societies and their environment with a focus on techniques, representations, knowledge and know-how. The field is actually threefold, involving ethnology, ethnobotany and ethnoecoloy. In addition, ethnology deals with the techno-cultural evolution of societies in a context of globalisation as well as issues of identity. Ethnobotany illustrates the cultural importance of the vegetal world for human societies. Ethnoecology focuses on objects mediators with natural environment, such as tools, techniques and transformed animal land vegetal material. Ethnobotany is a branch of ethnobiology, human science that studies the relationship between human societies and the plant world. It focuses on plants which are known, named and used by Human beings.These collections, which began in the early 20th century, concern the relationship between human societies and the plant world. Their botanical specimens, gathered among specific communities, wear cultural information. They are evidence of local knowledge. They come with rich documentation (archives, field notes, images and specialized publications). Tools and objects which are related are gathered into the “ethnoecology” section of the collections. Ethnoecology, a branch of human science, links ethnology and natural history. It studies uses of the resources of the environment, makes inventories of living species known, classified and used by human societies, knowledge about the ecology of these species, as well as oral literature or mythology.The principle behind the ethnoecology collection consists of drawing a link between a zoological or a botanical species and a cultural object: the species used to manufacture a tool, and the species that a tool is meant to obtain. The collection, which Raymond Pujol started by in the 1960s in the former laboratory for ethnobotany and ethnozoology, includes nowadays more than 5000 objects; it increases regularly with field studies. This collection is made up “research material”. The geographic areas are: America 36 %, Africa 26 %, Asia 23 %, Europe 15 %. Some regions are particularly represented, such as rainforest from Central Africa, Mexico, South America (Colombia, Peru, Brazil), East Asia (Japan, Laos, Cambodia, Indonesia). Ethnoecology collection as well as material is organized in categories and classes of objects: techniques of making (materials, basketry, feathers),acquisition (fishing, hunting, gathering), production (husbandry, agriculture), consumption (food and food ways, cooking), wellbeing (cosmetics, hygiene, ornaments, clothing), social life (leisure, games, music instruments) and religious phenomenon (religion and festivals). Of particular richness are objects associated with agriculture, fishing, insects (including more than 50 traditional beehives), basketry (more than 200) and music instruments (some 100). We collect also transformed food, vegetal and animal (including edible insects). All of the ethnology collections are the object of MNHN research, particularly with regard to the relationship between human activities and the natural environment: adaptation to environments and to climate change, management of resources and biodiversity, etc. Special attention is paid to questions of techno-cultural evolution in the context of globalization, including identity aspects, as well as changes in the material and new uses (particularly the influence of international trade and tourism).The ethnology collections include more than 6000 objects relative to the use of natural resources, be they plant, animal or mineral in nature, of agriculture, hunting and fishing, as well as lifestyles corresponding to specific natural environments. The ethnology collections cover the same geo-cultural regions as MNHN fieldwork: the Maghreb, Sahara, Sub-Saharan Africa, Oceania, Central Asia, Europe, etc. Aside from the daily work of preserving and inventorying this recently created collection, efforts are being made to enrich it. "

    Collection Abstract

    The MNHN’s cultural anthropology collections focus on the interrelationship between human societies and their environment with a focus on techniques, representations, knowledge and know-how. The field is actually threefold, involving ethnology, ethnobotany and ethnoecology. In addition, ethnology deals with the techno-cultural evolution of societies in a context of globalization as well as issues of identity. Ethnobotany  illustrates the cultural importance of the vegetal world for human societies. Ethnoecology focuses on objects mediators with natural environment, such as tools, techniques and transformed animal and vegetal material.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    080,0000
    Digitisation Fields

    Digitisation Strategy:

    Proportion Digitised:

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    Administration



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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
    Total0

    Features

    Collection Description

    This is one of the fastest-growing groups each year thanks to the many oceanographic campaigns. It contains a large number of recent and historical types and is one of the world’s richest collections in terms of diversity and abundance. Annelids are vermiform animals made up of a series of recurring units that each contain a fluid-filled internal cavity. They are 99% marine although some species live in the soil. Tunicates are characterised by an outer coating known as a tunic, made of a cellulose compound. They are marine animals, fixed or pelagic, whose larva has a typical dorsal nerve cord that disappears in adulthood. Ascidians (Benthic tunicates) only live in marine waters. They live fixed to objects at all depths, from the tidal zone to the ocean trenches. Bryozoans form colonies of a few centimetres composed of many separate units called zooids. The colonies are encrusting, erect or arborescent. Brachiopods are all marine. The animal is covered in a shell consisting of two valves. They have a characteristic organ called the Iophorephore, composed of a buccal crown with two arms. Corals, jellyfish, gorgonians and anemones are cnidarians. These animals are characterised by the presence of urticant cells (or cnidoblasts). Present on their tentacles in large numbers, these urticant cells are used to paralyse their prey and for self-defence. Some cnidarians are dangerous to humans. Crustaceans are composed by an amazing variety of forms, such as barnacles, which spend their life hanged to a solid object, or more vagile forms such as prawns and crabs. The character shared by all the crustaceans is the existence of a common larval stage during the development of the embryo or larva, called a nauplius. In recent decades, DNA molecule sequencing has become much more widespread thanks to technological progress and lower costs. This democratisation has enabled the Muséum and its researchers to invest in these DNA sequencing activities. Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals and can be found at all depths from the shore to the abyss and at all latitudes. Echinoderms are unusual animals as they develop an internal skeleton made of calcite plates and display a pentaradiate symmetry (order 5). Well known representatives include sea urchins and starfish. Although some molluscs, such as landsnails, live on land, or in fresh water, like freshwater pearl mussels, the majority is in fact marine. We know of around 70,000 species, but there could be twice that number of species in existence. Meiofauna consists of small benthic animals (living on the sea beds). The meiofauna collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle includes various groups, such as rotifers, tardigrades and many worms. Parasitic worms or Helminths display immense biodiversity. They include agents that cause many parasitic diseases in humans and animals.

    Collection Abstract

    This is one of the fastest-growing groups each year thanks to the many oceanographic campaigns. It contains a large number of recent and historical types and is one of the world’s richest collections in terms of diversity and abundance.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    06,495,8500
    Digitisation Fields

    Digitisation Strategy:

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    Administration



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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
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    Features

    Collection Description

    "The Versailles-Chèvreloup estate forms an arboretum that extends over 200 hectares (494 acres) of natural and landscaped spaces. It presents a collection of trees from temperate or cold regions of the globe, which can resist the climate of the Paris region. Chèvreloup was an integral part of the royal estate and its history is closely linked to that of the château de Versailles and its park. At the end of the 17th century, by order of Louis XIV, the hamlet and its lands were included in the park to expand the hunting grounds and divert the water running there to feed the palace ponds. The Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle took possession of this estate at the start of the 20th century to develop plant collections there as a complement to those found in the Jardin des Plantes in Paris. These first botanical plantations were organised following a vast plan “à la française” (a French formal garden plan). Then, starting in the 1960s, new areas of the park were developed into a scientific arboretum that followed a natural planting plan comprising distinct geographical and horticultural areas across 120 ha (296 acres) of the arboretum. Collections of the Jardin alpin la Jaÿsinia This garden was created in 1906 by Marie-Louise Cognacq-Jaÿ, founder of La Samaritaine. It is classed as a Remarkable Garden and comprises 4,800 mountain plants from 2,500 different species. This garden was created in 1906 by Marie-Louise Cognacq-Jaÿ, founder of La Samaritaine. It is classed as a Remarkable Garden and comprises 4,800 mountain plants from 2,500 different species. The scientific management of the Jaÿsinia was handed to the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle in 1936. The garden is sculpted out of a south-facing mountain side dominating the village. The Jaÿsinia covers 3 ha 700 (9 acres). Although the garden may appear natural today, its structure is in fact completely artificial and took no less than three years to complete. During the construction, 80 workers could be found digging, with pickaxes and crowbars, the paths, ponds and waterfalls (the highest stretches 12m with a flow rate of 100 l/minute), moving rocks, forming corbel arches and building stone walls. The steeply sloping land is composed of limestone rock strata, including ancient natural lapies, which were cleared of the soil covering them. A small chapel (18th century) and the ruins of Tornalta castle (12th century) are still visible in the garden. The collection of 4,800 specimens includes 2,500 species of mountain flora from all five continents. The garden is organised into geographical sectors: Alps, Caucasus, Pyrenees, mountains of Spain and North Africa, Mediterranean mountains, Balkans, Middle East, China, Japan, North America, New Zealand. There are also many small perennial species adapted to life among rocks, groundcover and cushion plants, prairie and undergrowth perennials and shrubs and trees of which many are now centenarian: American oaks, giant sequoias, lindens, pines and spruces from America and Asia, among others. The garden also contains artificially recreated ecological areas: marshes, peat bogs, and granite soils (acidic soils) which required tonnes of rocks to be brought from the Chamonix region. Finally, prairies where the natural vegetation is conserved link up the rockery beds. Collections of the Jardin des Plantes With its planted spaces, remarkable trees, statues and walkways, the Jardin des Plantes offers visitors a varied and well-preserved setting. It enables you to follow the natural plant cycles of growth, flowering and fruiting as the seasons turn. At the Jardin des Plantes, beginners and amateurs alike can observe thousands of species and varieties of rare and common plants by exploring the eleven gardens, each with their own theme and atmosphere. The Carrés de la perspective (Squares of perspective): beds containing seasonal ornamental shrubs and plants that are replanted twice a year The Jardin des plantes ressources (Resource plant garden): wild and horticultural plants presented in terms of their various uses to humans The École de Botanique (Botany School): the diversity of plants in temperate zones organised by scientific classification The Jardin alpin (Alpine garden): mountain plants grouped by biogeographical origin The Jardin écologique (Ecological garden): presentation of plant groups in Île-de-France (Paris region) The Grandes Serres (Great Glasshouses): tropical and subtropical plants representing rainforests, arid environments, flora of New Caledonia, etc., or presented to evoke the different stages in the evolution of plants The Jardin de roses et de roches (Rose and Rock garden): rose garden and collection of minerals The Jardin des pivoines (Peony garden): collection of Japanese peonies and magnolias The Jardin des abeilles et des oiseaux (Garden of Bees and Birds): natural biodiversity reserve The Labyrinth: trees and shrubs, including many historical specimens The Jardin des iris et des plantes vivaces (Iris and Perennials garden): ornamental collection of horticultural perennials Plants by the thousands 8,500 species and varieties: wild plants from different natural environments and horticultural varieties 2,000 trees including some remarkable specimens planted by naturalists since the 17th century 2,500 shrubs 8,500 perennial herbaceous plants 2,000 glasshouse plants 80,000 seasonal plants Vast spaces: 19 hectares (47 acres) Carrés de la perspective: 2.5 hectares (6 acres) from the Lamarck statue next to the Seine to the Buffon statue near the Grande Galerie de l’Évolution Jardin alpin: 4,000 m2 Jardin écologique: 10,000 m2 École de botanique: 9,500 m² Jardin des iris et des plantes vivaces: 1,500 m2"

    Collection Abstract

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    081,2890
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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
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    Features

    Collection Description

    "The Muséum’s libraries’ collections document every stage in the natural history research cycle, from the first field notes and observations to the dissemination of the scientific results. These collections are mainly for scientific, educational and museographic purposes and come in all types - manuscripts, scientific and institutional archives, plans, drawings, prints, photographs, geographical maps, printed books and journals, electronic resources, works of art, scientific instruments and objects. They cover all the domains of natural history sciences and humanities. The wealth and diversity of these two million or so documents position the Muséum’s libraries among the largest natural science libraries in the world. Back when it was known as the Jardin du roi (the King’s garden), the Cabinet already contained books and manuscripts by scholars and artists which were accessible to the Jardin’s staff and the public. During the French Revolution, the Muséum’s founding decree (in 1793) established it as a public library housing the collections of the Cabinet du roi (King’s Cabinet), copies from the Bibliothèque royale (Royal Library) and natural history books confiscated during the Revolution. The Muséum’s libraries’ collections were enhanced, as the various chairs were created, with the documentation needed for the establishment’s scientific activity. The Muséum’s growing reputation attracted donations from many private funds, bequeathed to the libraries by former professors or research associates. They left their work, research notes, libraries, documents brought back from expeditions, manuscripts of great scientific works, etc. The collections were expanded through procurements, gifts and donations throughout the 20th century and continue to grow today, notably with the recent contribution of electronic resources. These collections are available to researchers, amateurs and all interested audiences in the different reading rooms of the Muséum’s libraries, and they can also be accessed at distance via a dedicated website which makes it possible to consult the digital library catalogues and electronic resources. The collections are also regularly presented to the public during the exhibitions organised at the Muséum or at other cultural institutions."

    Collection Abstract

    The Muséum’s libraries’ collections document every stage in the natural history research cycle, from the first field notes and observations to the dissemination of the scientific results.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    000
    Digitisation Fields

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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
    Total0

    Features

    Collection Description

    Collection Abstract

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    000
    Digitisation Fields

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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
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    Features

    Collection Description

    "Geology is the science that aims to describe the composition, structure, origin of rocks, the history and evolution of the accessible layers of the Earth, and the processes that shape it. The geological collections include over 4,000 meteorites, nearly 24,000 igneous and metamorphic rocks, 500,000 sedimentary rocks, 138,000 minerals and gems and over 8.5 km of ocean sediment core samples. The Muséum’s collection of endogenous rocks is an inventory of the rocks formed inside the Earth. They are representative of magmatic plutonic or volcanic rocks, formed from the solidification of previously molten terrestrial materials (magma) and any type of rocks altered under the influence of temperatures and pressures prevailing inside the Earth (metamorphic rocks). Due to the history of earth science collections at the National Museum of Natural History, a number of endogenous rock samples are still in the general geology collection. The General Geology collection is the result of the Muséum’s Geology Chair activities beginning in 1793. It has been largely enriched by numerous scientific expeditions. The collection is made of more than 500,000 specimens of rocks, minerals, fossils, and drill cores, as well as sample sets representing important stratigraphic and paleo-ecological sequences, including French stratotypes (Turonian, Lutetian). These are stored and preserved in 12 specimen collections spread across three different buildings, including the Historical Geology and Mineralogy Gallery. This gallery was the first gallery built in France for the storage and preservation of natural collections. It was first open to the public in 1841. Meteorites are extraterrestrial rocks from our Solar System. They bear witness to the formation and evolution of planets. The Muséum’s meteorite collection contains over 5400 specimens and preparations with samples of about 1,600 individual meteorites. It ranks fifth worldwide in terms of observed falls (more than 500). The minerals and gem collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN) contains around 138,000 samples. It was established since 1626 on the basis of the royal collections of the Museum, and then around the chair of mineralogy of the Muséum’s (1793-1998) and, since early 2000, around the Direction des collections of the MNHN. The oceanic collection consists of sediment cores and dragged sediments, mainly collected by crews on the French ship, the Marion Dufresne. These rocks and sediments are the result of more than 30 years of oceanographic campaigns coming mostly from the Indian Ocean but also from the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean, the Caspian Sea and the Pacific Ocean."

    Collection Abstract

    Geology is the science that aims to describe the composition, structure, origin of rocks, the history and evolution of the accessible layers of the Earth, and the processes that shape it. The geological collections include over 4,000 meteorites, nearly 24,000 igneous and metamorphic rocks, 500,000 sedimentary rocks, 138,000 minerals and gems and over 8.5 km of ocean sediment core samples.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    0670,0000
    Digitisation Fields

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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
    Total0

    Features

    Collection Description

    "Prehistory is a discipline devoted to the study of the material vestiges of human societies, for 3 million years and up to a few thousand or even a few hundred years depending on the regions of the world. Collections of tools and objects in flint, hard material of animal origin (bone, antler, ivory), decorated objects, statuettes and figurines, engraved or painted plaques, pictorial materials ... constitute the main part of the collections of Prehistory of the Museum. They illustrate the cultural testimonies of these societies and the environments associated with them. Study documents, such as rock art surveys, soil surveys or casts are associated with them. A large part of the collections come from the first excavations of prehistoric sites which are reference, in particular in the South-West of France (Laugerie-Haute, la Madeleine, la Marche…). But the collections relate to many regions of the world whose prehistoric remains are also major (especially South Africa or the Tassili region). The transition from a subsistence economy based on hunting, fishing and gathering to a production-based economy with the domestication of animals and plants, began in the 9th century BCE. This transition, known as the Neolithic, led to a sedentary lifestyle with the gradual integration of innovations, such as ceramics and polishing. These processes, while not necessarily concomitant, occurred simultaneously in different areas of the globe. The pollen library of the Department of Prehistory is home to a research collection of pollen samples of modern vegetation from the European continent and the Mediterranean basin. Quaternary sediments are formed by the different processes of rock alteration and then by the transport and deposit of the elements resulting from this alteration. They are witness to the climatic and geographic phenomena which have shaped the landscapes associated with human evolution."

    Collection Abstract

    Prehistory is a discipline devoted to the study of the material vestiges of human societies, for 3 million years and up to a few thousand or even a few hundred years depending on the regions of the world.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    0618,0000
    Digitisation Fields

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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

    TaxonomyQuantityDigitization levels (MIDS)Areas and Countries
    Level 0 %Level 1 %Level 2 %Level 3 %
    Total0

    Features

    Collection Description

    The Biological Resources of Living and Cryopreserved Cells (RBCell) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle stores microorganisms or cells for studying the mechanisms of life (e.g. genetic information, cellular and metabolic processes) as Chemical and Extract natural products from nationale chimiotheque. RBCell specimens include: prokaryotic and eukaryotic, unicellular and pluricellular, live, cryopreserved or lyophilized microorganisms, cryopreserved vertebrate cells or tissues, DNA and natural molecules or extracts. The collections comprise more than 9000 items. They are composed of isolated or synthesized pure molecules, natural extracts, gums, resins ... the oldest samples date from the beginning of the 19th century and the most recent have been added during the last ten years. These collections are managed by the research unit MCAM - UMR 7245 (Molecules of Communication and Adaptation of Microorganisms). The biological resource of Cryopreserved Vertebrate Tissues and Cells (TCCV) comprises around 600 different species, mainly Mammals, in more than 6,000 cryopreserved cell and tissue samples. It can provide untransformed living cells, allowing the studies of evolutionary (genetic) or physiological (cellular or metabolic) processes on a wide specific diversity. The fungal culture collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle contains living microscopic fungi, mainly saphrophytic ascomycetes, isolated from various substrata and locations. The collection offers a mould identification service and consultancy. The cyanobacteria and eukaryotic microalgae collections contain over 1889 strains and form France’s biggest collection of freshwater phytoplankton. The Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle’s Unicellular Eukaryotes collection is made up of live parasitic and "free-living" protist collections, and protist DNA collections.

    Collection Abstract

    The Biological Resources of Living and Cryopreserved Cells (RBCell) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle stores microorganisms or cells for studying the mechanisms of life (e.g. genetic information, cellular and metabolic processes) as Chemical and Extract natural products from nationale chimiotheque. RBCell specimens include: prokaryotic and eukaryotic, unicellular and pluricellular, live, cryopreserved or lyophilized microorganisms, cryopreserved vertebrate cells or tissues, DNA and natural molecules or extracts.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    0314,0000
    Digitisation Fields

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    Manager : Katharine WORLEY

    Taxonomic Coverage

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    Features

    Collection Description

    Vertebrates are animals possessing an internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage that protects the central nervous system. The vertebrate collection group comprises around 1.4 million specimens. Amphibians came onto land from the aquatic environment over 380 million years ago. Currently, existing amphibians are divided into three orders: anurans (toads, frogs and tree frogs), urodeles (newts and salamanders) and gymnophionans.

    Collection Abstract

    Vertebrates are animals possessing an internal skeleton made of bone or cartilage that protects the central nervous system. The vertebrate collection group comprises around 1.4 million specimens.

    Collection Staff

    Accession Specimens

    Size and Digitisation Fields
    primary_types_countspecimens_countunits_countother_size_indicatorsowc_size_evaluation
    01,400,0000
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