Plant Science and Biodiversity Centre, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Botany

Consortium name  
Slovakian Consortium: Slovak National Taxonomic Facility (NaTAF)
Institution (Original name) 
Botanický ústav - Slovenskej akadémie vied
Dúbravská cesta 9
Postal code 

+421 2 5942 6111

Type of institution 
If other, please specify 
Non-University state research institution
Are you part of a larger entity / legal body? 
If yes, please specify  
Institute of Botany SAS is a legal personality, as such it belongs to the larger entity – Slovak Academy of Sciences
Full member
CETAF Official representative
Name, position, phone, e-mail, research field 

Prof. Karol Marhold, PhD., vascular plant taxonomy, nomenclature, molecular systematics, +421 910 128891,

Member of the Executive Committee? 
Name, position, phone, e-mail, research field 

Mgr. Anna Guttová, PhD., lichenology, +421 2 5942 6111,

Member of the Executive Committee? 
Name, position, phone, e-mail, research field + Working Group or Project involved in 

Mgr. Matúš Kempa, bioinformatics & biodiversity informatics,

Member of the Executive Committee? 
Director / legal representative of the institution (title, name, phone, e-mail, research field) 

Mgr. Anna Guttová, PhD., +421 2 5942 6111,, lichenology


Department of Non-Vascular Plants Department of Vascular Plant Taxonomy Department of Geobotany Department of Plant Physiology

Governing and executive bodies 

Director (appointed by the Presidium of the Slovak Academy of Sciences) Vice-Director (appointed by the Director) Scientific Secretary (appointed by the Director) Executive Board (Director, Vice-Director, Scientific Secretary, Heads of scientific departments, Head of Economical Department, Head of Technical Department, Head of Scientific Board) Scientific Board (five internal and two external members elected by the academic community of the institute)

Scientific staff 
Permanent (P)Non – Permanent (NP)
a) TOTAL scientific staff445
b) Scientific staff linked to Collections10
c) Post-docs / PhD students227
d) Others (Associates, etc.)00
TOTAL (a+b+c+d)4732
Other staff (administration etc.) 
Permanent (P)Non – Permanent (NP)
e) Exhibitions
f) Collection Managers / technicians30
g) Others 303
TOTAL (e+f+g) 333
Total permanent staff 
Total non-permanent staff 
Grand total (permanent + non-permanent Staff) 
Male (%) 
Female (%) 
R&D facilities
How many laboratories are in use in your institution? 
List of laboratories 

1. Laboratory of Molecular Systematics In this laboratory we generate data addressing scientific questions of taxonomy, phylogeny, phylogeography and related evolutionary processes across different groups of vascular and non-vascular plants. Methods applied are focused on the study of differences and changes on the DNA level among organisms using several methods such as AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism), SSRs (microsatellites – simple repetitions) or sequencing of selected loci. Most of the currently used molecular methods are based on variations of the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and the analyses of the relevant products. The laboratory is also equipped for DNA extraction from plant material dried in silica gel or from herbarium specimens. In case when direct sequencing of specific loci is problematic, we use methods such as SSCP (Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism) or cloning of PCR products into the bacterial cells, separating different alleles from diploid and especially from polyploid individuals. Currently we implement also new methods based on the NGS (Next Generation Sequencing), such as a Hyb-Seq and RAD-Seq. Here we are sequencing only selected loci and not the whole genome, which decreases price per sample and gives the opportunity to sequence more individuals. The laboratory of molecular systematics possess all necessary equipment for standard methods used in molecular systematics such as DNA extraction, PCR based methods (PCR-RFLP, AFLP, SSR), DNA purification, as well as cloning of PCR products (centrifuges, mixer mill, PCR thermocyclers, thermoblocks, incubators, PCR and flow boxes, spectrophotometer and fluorometer, temperature controlled electrophoresis apparatus, electrophoresis power supplies, blue light and UV-transilluminators with imaging system, etc.). The Institute owns or hires licenses for all relevant programs needed for molecular data evaluation (Geneious, PAUP, MacClade, SYN-TAX, SAS, DAx). 2. Laboratory of karyology and flow cytometry Regarding karyological research, the Institute possesses a karyological laboratory equipped by a microscope Axioscope 2 (Zeiss) and two flow cytometers equipped by a green laser with488 nm excitation wave and an HBO mercury arc lamp for UV excitation, respectively. Flow cytometers allow to detect relative (DNA ploidy level) as well as absolute DNA amount in plant material. Two cytometers running in parallel offer a possibility of simultaneous measurements of relative and absolute DNA amounts of the same sample and thus i.a. estimation of the proportion of AT/GC bases in the studied genome. 3. Morphometric laboratory All instrumental and software equipment required for the application of multivariate morphometrics is available. This consists of several high-quality stereomicroscopes (Olympus SZ 61) with digital cameras to output image to PC, and A3 scanner allowing observation, digitalization and subsequent evaluation of the investigated material. Software accessories comprise licenses of statistical programs and packages (SAS, SYN-TAX) needed for evaluation of the biostatistical data. 4. Mycological laboratory The analytical, genomic DNA extraction mycological laboratory serves for the analyses of lichen secondary chemistry and for the extraction of nucleic acids; innoculation and cultivation mycological laboratory for fungal culture preparation, and algological laboratory. 5. Mycological, phytopathological and algological cultivation labs The laboratories serve for isolation of the material from the substrate (microscopic fungi from host plant tissues, algae and cyanobacteria from water), inoculation and cultivation of the material for further analyses (e. g. molecular analyses). 6. Molecular Laboratory of Plant Physiology In our laboratories we use mainly the methods as a ROS determination, electrophoresis, root respiration, determination of different enzymes activities, methods for obtaining physiological status of investigated plants, gene expression and semiquantitative RT-PCR. 7. Pedological laboratory Chemical analyses of soil samples serve to complement datasets gathered for studies in plant communities. The results represent additional datasets for characterization of ecological requirements of particular plant assamblages.

Other scientific / R&D facilities 

Biodiversity e-infrastructures (databases) and herbarium collection (SAV) We will continue to publish our research results by electronic means – databases and other on-line resources. They are already widely used not only by fellow scientists, but also by the State Nature Conservancy and decision makers. Of the sources that we continuously build and improve, the following deserve special mention: (1) All published volumes of the Flora of Slovakia are available on-line via the Biodiversity Heritage Library ( thanks to cooperation with the Real Jardín Botánico, Madrid; (2) the Checklist of non-vascular and vascular plants of Slovakia will be upgraded to reflect new taxonomic knowledge and computer technology; (3) DATAflos (Database of the Flora of Slovakia) will be further filled with plant distribution data; (4) existing chromosome number and ploidy level resources (database of ferns and flowering plants of Slovakia; databases of the genus Cardamine and the tribe Alysseae) will be updated and connected with similar databases from other countries with the aim to provide a single access web portal for revised chromosome and ploidy level data; (5) the Central database of phytosociological relevés (Slovak Vegetation Database) will be updated further and contributed to the European Vegetation Archive; (6) the Database of non-native plant species; and (7) Lichens in Slovakia. We will also continue building our internationally recognized herbarium collection (acronym SAV) and living cultures. Digitalization of the collection will continue as well, and we will work together with major European natural history collections in order to achieve their recognition as ESFRI infrastructure.

Number of permanent exhibitions 
Number of recent exhibitions 
Number of future exhibitions 
Research Field 
Research Field 
Evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, diversity and distribution of biota, ecological niche differentiation, species co-existence and distribution patterns
Research Field 
Invasive alien species and the level of invasion of individual habitats
Research Field 
Vegetation dynamics, spatio-temporal changes and restoration, vegetation surveying
Research Field 
Water ecosystems – vulnerable habitats influencing the landscape
Research Field 
Plant stress responses
Research Field 
Biodiversity e-infrastructures (databases) and herbarium collection (SAV)
Scientific publications
Number of peer-reviewed publications per year 
Monthly journals/series 
Other publications 

Bulletin Slovenskej botanickej spoločnosti 2 issues per year Flóra Slovenska [Flora of Slovakia] Vegetácia Slovenska [Vegetation of Slovakia]

Digital copy of the latest annual report 
EARTH SCIENCES (Geology, Mineralogy, Palaeontology,…) 
TypologyPrimary typesIndividual specimens/objects% registered cards% recorded cards in database
LIFE SCIENCES (Zoology, Biology, Botany, Mycology,…) 
TypologyPrimary typesIndividual specimens/objects% registered cards % recorded cards in database
Total specimens (all collections) 
Outstanding collection features 

Herbarium collections are primarily concentrated on the Carpathian and Pannonian flora. Considerable part of collections refers also to the detailed systematic studies by the researchers of the institute, particularly of some genera of families Brassicaceae (Alyssum, Cardamine) and Asteraceae (Picris, Senecio, Hieracium, Pilosella, Cyanus). Important part of the herbarium is also extensive collection of the genera Hieracium and Pilosella by Alois Zlatník. Internationally important collection is that by Czech botanist František Nábělek (1884-1965). He studied botany under Professor Richard von Wettstein at Vienna University, Austria. Shortly after finishing his studies he visited SW Asia, where he collected plants from March 1909 until November 1910. During this time he visited the area of the current Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Bahrein, Iran and Turkey. Along with Joseph Bornmüller and Heinrich Handel-Mazzetti, Nábělek was one of the most important contributors towards the knowledge of the flora of this area after the publication of Boissier's Flora Orientalis. Results of his studies were published in five parts of his work Iter Turcico-Persicum (Nábělek, 1923-1929), where he described four new genera, 78 species, 69 varieties and 38 formas. His extensive herbarium from this area contains 6775 specimens (altogether 4171 collection numbers). More details: Lichen collection includes material collected from up to 50 countries worldwide, collected by up to 150 collectors. Important collections: • Lichenes minus congniti H. Kashiwadani (no 201–375) • Lichenes japonici exsiccati I. Yoshimura (no 35–42) • Lichenes sinenses exsiccati J. C. Wei (no 1–50) • Lichenotheca latinoamericana H. Sipman (no 1–150) • Lichenes delicati exsiccati editae in memoriam A. Vězda; E. Farkas (no 1–30) • Lichenes selecti exsiccati Upsaliensis (no 1–150, 301–400) • Lichenes isidiosi et sorediosi exsiccati T. Tønsberg (no 1–50) • Lichenes canadenses exsiccati (no 251–295) • Lichenes poloniae exsiccati W. Fałtynowicz, M. Kukwa, P. Czarnota (no 26–75) • Lichenes exsiccati selecti G. Follmann (no 1–40, 61–150) • Lichenes exsiccati Umbilicariaceae B. Feige, H. T. Lumbsch (no 1–106) • Plantae graecenses (no 1–560) • Lichenotheca graecensis W. Obermayer (no 1–320) • Lichenes slovakiae exsiccati I. Pišút (no 201–250, 276–300) • Lichenes selecti exsiccati A. Vězda (no 493, 2001–2500) • Lichenes rariores exsiccati A. Vězda (no 274, 337, 441, 444, 455, 461–471, 474–481, 484–492, 494–496, 500) • herbarium A. Vězda – 78 duplikcates (1 isotypus, 1 topotypus)

Does your institution have an Index Seminum? 


Heritage sciences (art, manuscripts, maps, photographs...) 

• Type(s) of objects: scientific journals, periodicals, books of abstracts, papers, proceedings, books (e.g. monographs, floras, identification keys) • No. of objects (of each type): altogether 23 013 units

Size and importance of living collections 

No living collections

Genetic Repositories
Does your institution have a DNA bank? 
Does your institution have a seed bank? 
Number of outgoing loans (parcels / specimens) per year 
Cryptogams: 15 parcels per year; Phanerogams: 25 parcels per year
Number of accessions (specimens) per year 
Cryptogams: 300 specimens; Phanerogams: 5 000 specimens
Number of scientific visitors per year 
1. Vascular plants: Asteraceae, Brassicaceae
2. Lichens: Leprocaulaceae (Solenopsora), Collemataceae (Collema, Leptogium), Placynthium, Cladonia
3. Fungi: Russula, Camarophyllopsis, Lactarius, Geoglossum, Ascocoryne, Taphrina
4. Algae and cyanobacteria: diversity
Contact person at your institution for communications / press / external relations (name, position, phone, e-mail) 

Ing. Jaromír Kučera, PhD.,

Trends (past and future) 

2015, Open door day – secondary school students (up to 80) Trend: steady, stabile – collection is mainly scientific

If your institution is involved with non-university-based teaching or education programmes, please describe them & the partners 

Yes. Scientists cooperate with basic and secondary schools to share and multiplicate scientific knowledge related to plants and fungi. They provide lectures and classes of biology (e.g. school Spojená škola Tilgnerova Bratislava, the project “Discovering with the Slovak Academy of Sciences”).

If your institution is involved with universities in teaching or education programmes, please name and describe them 

Scientists from the Institute of Botany SAS are involved in teaching at Comenius University in Bratislava, Matej Bell University in Banská Bystrica both Slovakia and Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic Institute is also accredited for PhD studies in botany in cooperation with the Comenius University in Bratislava.

If your institution is involved in online courses, please describe them and the partners 


If your institution is involved in training projects, please describe them and the partners 
Other relevant information on education and / or training carried out 

Guided tours, floristic courses, lectures for students in primary and secondary schools are organised regularly in cooperation with the Slovak Botanical Society.

Contact person at your institution for education / teaching / training (name, position, phone, e-mail) 

RNDr. Milan Valachovič, PhD. – Vice-Director, responsible for PhD studies at the Institute, +421 2 59426178, Prof. Karol Marhold, PhD., +421 910 128891,


1. Multivolume monographs Flora of Slovakia and Vegetation of Slovakia

2. Systematic research primarily of the Carpathian and Pannonia flora and mycota

3. Carpathian and Pannonian biodiversity informatics

4. Digitalisation of herbarium collections


1. Next generation sequencing applications in plant and mycological systematics

2. Publication of electronic Flora of Slovakia

3. Digitalisation of herbarium collections

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